Thursday, September 3, 2020
Positive Social Reinforcement in Sports Presentation Need article test on Positive Social Reinforcement in Sports theme? We will compose a custom paper test explicitly for you Continue Specialists concur that the psychological and psychosocial advancement of kids is impacted by the nature of their social associations. Improvements in positive brain science dating as far back as the 60s recommend, in any case, that youngsters are bound to react in a positive manner when given positive upgrades as positive social support from their surroundings (Roberts, Spink and Pemberton, 1986). These fortifications may originate from the lead of friends, grown-ups, and different inpiduals and gatherings that kids come into contact with (Danish, Petitpas, and Hale, 1993). Grown-ups, be that as it may, particularly the individuals who are viewed as huge by the youngster, for example, educators, guardians, and mentors, frequently have an additionally enduring effect on the development of kids as kids will undoubtedly reflect their activities and practices or look to satisfy their desires (Horn 2002). One of the conditions where kids are normally presented to social reinforcers is their dynamic support in sport exercises, wherein, it is expected by the hypothesis of positive social fortification, that the social reinforcers would intercede in childrens execution and learning exercises in sport exercises (Caruso 2005). These fortifications might be appeared through verbal and non-verbal signs, mentalities, and treatment that a specific youngster gets from the mentor or the rec center educator. As needs be, kids would show better execution when given encouraging feedback than when they are given negative ones (Balaguer, Duda, and Crespo, 1999). This examination in this manner endeavors to decide the impact of the rec center educators support design on the understudies learning and execution in sport exercises utilizing the classes of social fortification proposed by Smith, Smoll, and Hunt (1977) in their Coaching Behavior Analysis System. Audit of Related Literature For over 10 years now, a noteworthy number of researchers in the region of brain science have been persuaded that positive social support has a significant influence in advancing human turn of events (Roberts, Spink Danish, Petitpas, Gould, 2002). Studies led propose that positive social collaborations urge youngsters to be progressively open to learning new abilities and information (Martens, et. al. 2003) . This circumstance is watched even among grown-ups, which make uplifting feedback techniques extremely helpful in countering character and condition related mental and social issues. Individuals Frequently Tell Us:Who needs to compose exposition for me?Specialists propose:Essay Help Services Buy Essay Online Cheap Best Essay Writing Service Best Essay Writing Service In any case, the current watched pattern toward positive brain research pushes researchers to have the option to come up with answers for existing issues as well as for components to keep these issues from emerging in any case (Horn 2002; Gould 2002). The job of positive social support in the improvement of youngsters has in this manner increased a lot of enthusiasm among researchers, particularly since contemplates demonstrate that uplifting feedback may have extend impacts in the expanded capacity of kids to finish errands and believe in getting things done all alone (Martens, et. al. 2003). In a similar way, clinicians additionally have since quite a while ago understood that sport and other play exercises consider as a real part of the noteworthy wellsprings of fortifications for some, kids (Horn 1985). This is particularly evident in social orders wherein an assortment of sports are a piece of the prevailing society, for example, the United States, where kids are acquainted with sport exercises at a youthful age. The very truth that just about forty-five percent (45%) American youth are occupied with sports and comparative exercises (Chambers 1991), it is contended, mirrors the noteworthiness of this exercises in the life of the nation and its youngsters, wherein they structure their first self-information on their capacities and restrictions, qualities, and shortcomings. Cooperation in sports thusly gets one of the noteworthy impacts in the advancement of personality in kids and in building their confidence outside their basic informal organizations at home and inside the school (Danish, Petitpas, Horn 1985). Subsequently, clinicians have for quite some time been keen on revealing the connections between cooperation in brandishing exercises and childrens advancement. Various investigations directed point to the intervention of propelling variables in the advancement of game exercises in the learning and expertise building capacities of youngsters (Horn 2002). A survey of the reasearch led in the subject done by Chambers (1991) demonstrate that inspiration to partake in youth sport includes a connection between the competitor, mentor and athletic condition. This implied kids and youthful grown-ups were either urged to join such exercises dependent on their self-impression of abilities, the positive input picked up from the mentor, and the empowering condition where the person in question can make and strengthen their informal organizations through games. Horn (2002) additionally calls attention to that sports is an accomplishment setting where inspiration might be viewed as the focal inquiry, or where an examination of the variables that influence inspiration to take an interest and take part in sport exercises is essential in deciding the advantage that youngsters may secure while they are youthful as well as even until their change to adulthood. Balaguer, Duda, and Crespo (1999) clarify that inspiration is critical since it is here that the various impacts among positive and negative perspectives toward sports might be effectively noticeable as that of assignment included inspiration or inner self included inspirations. In the topic of inspiration, the job of mentors as critical wellspring of social fortification has expanded in significance. This examination originates from explores directed that show the interceding element of mentors fortification examples on the inspiration of competitors (Amorose and Horn 2000; Balaguer, Duda, Horn 1985; Chambers 1991). Balaguer, Duda, task-included inspirations where kids associated with sports become increasingly worried about the methods and the procedure to accomplish goalsfocusing on their capacity to achieve troublesome undertakings, apply enough exertion, and advancement of aptitudes and knowledgerather than on being centered uniquely around winning. Then again, negative fortification builds up a cognizance that is more self image fulfilling in nature, wherein inpiduals are worried about exhibiting normatively-referenced high capacity and, along these lines, see an effective occasion when they have outperformed others or performed similarly with less exertion. (Balaguer, Duda, and Crespo 1999) In a similar way, uplifting feedback from mentors likewise empower competitors and youngsters associated with sports to keep negative things off their brain and spotlight on improving their presentation in the game. (Caruso 2005) Methods, for example, empowering prompt words from mentors and positive confirmations are likewise observed as powerful in light of the fact that the psyche doesn't have a clue about the distinction among genuine and clearly envisioned understanding. (Caruso 2005) Herein lie the distinction between precisely doing what is required so as to win and being really persuaded to show a decent exhibition in the game, and a contrast between having the option to exhibit prevalence over others and being capable over exhibit a drive to add to the objectives of the group (Balaguer, Duda, and Crespo 1999). Ensuing investigations approve the mentor execution relationship hypothesis. It has been seen by Amorose and Horn (2000) that apparent instructing practices were identified with competitors characteristic inspiration, with competitors who saw their mentors to put more accentuation on preparing and guidance, and who utilized equitable methodologies in the administration of competitors to have more significant levels of inherent inspiration than competitors under mentors with despotic conduct. The previous additionally got liberal positive input from their mentors and low frequencies of discipline situated and disregarding practices. (Amorose and Horn, 2000) Another investigation including junior cricketers discovered huge relationships between's elements of confidence, cricket self-recognitions and the emotional results of pride, energy and joy and noteworthy connections between's the cricketers' impression of their mentors utilization of the instructional techniques and measurements of their post-season confidence, cricket self-observations, full of feeling results and inborn inspiration direction. (Paterson 1999) These investigations bolstered the discoveries of Horns research in 1985 which proposed that mentors criticism significantly affected the progressions of competitors self-recognitions and fitness and that the competitors psychosocial development was as much an element of their aptitudes and the reaction they got from their mentors on their presentation. A study of the stock of exploration led in the previous two decades along these lines obviously bolster the thought that mentors, as inpiduals considered as huge others in the life of kids and youthful grown-ups, impact the way that kids and youthful grown-ups will build up their characters and their impression of their abilities and confinements. It is as such that the connection between the childrens inspiration to take part and exceed expectations in sports has been clarified, as a component of the positive or negative fortification got from guardians and mentors, and how these criticisms eventually fortify the childrens self-ID and observations, and they become keen on beating existing difficulties in sport exercises to accomplish objectives and desires. It is likewise demonstrated that encouraging feedback may thus impact positive results not onl
Saturday, August 22, 2020
identified with the utilization of creatures for logical research. Every year, 17 to 22 million creatures are utilized in logical or clinical analyses to test new medications and study infection to protect the security of items for human use. As ahead of schedule as 500 B.C., creatures have been survivors of testing and experimentation known as vivisection, to promote human clinical research. Vivisection, a word that initially implied cutting or performing medical procedure on a live creature, is a training that utilizations live creatures for tests so as to shield people in general from risky synthetics. Sir George Duckett of the Society for the Abolition of Vivisection, 1875, has said about the utilization of vivisection, Vivisection is tremendous. Clinical science has little to learn and nothing can be picked up by redundancy of tests on living creatures (Day 35). This statement shows that even back in the late 1800's, savagery to creatures during research was a worry. Researchers accept that a huge number of people would endure or kick the bucket without creature experimentation. Specialists keep up that they couldn't acquaint new medications and immunizations with test wellbeing without creature testing. Despite the fact that enormous advancements have been made in science because of creature look into, it is as yet an exceptionally discussed, moral issue among creature activists. worry over the government assistance of creatures used in research center practice has prompted laws and guidelines overseeing the utilization of creatures to guarantee accommodating treatment. As per associations, for example, PETA, (People for the Ethical Treatment of Animals), creatures have the privilege not to be dealt with obtusely or tormented to profit humankind. Creature experimentation ought to be utilized to progress science just when the creature isn't phsically hurt of made to endure unnecessarily. The ... Free Essays on Argument For Animals Free Essays on Argument For Animals Contention for Animals Human rights versus basic entitlements, savagery, misuse, logical advances and vivisection are all words identified with the utilization of creatures for logical research. Every year, 17 to 22 million creatures are utilized in logical or clinical trials to test new medications and study malady to safeguard the wellbeing of items for human use. As ahead of schedule as 500 B.C., creatures have been casualties of testing and experimentation known as vivisection, to facilitate human clinical research. Vivisection, a word that initially implied cutting or performing medical procedure on a live creature, is a training that utilizations live creatures for tests so as to shield people in general from hazardous synthetic compounds. Sir George Duckett of the Society for the Abolition of Vivisection, 1875, has said about the utilization of vivisection, Vivisection is massive. Clinical science has little to learn and nothing can be picked up by redundancy of tests on living creatures (Day 35). This statement shows that even back in the late 1800's, cold-bloodedness to creatures during research was a worry. Researchers accept that a large number of people would endure or bite the dust without creature experimentation. Specialists keep up that they couldn't acquaint new drugs and immunizations with test wellbeing without creature testing. Despite the fact that colossal forward leaps have been made in science because of creature look into, it is as yet an exceptionally discussed, moral issue among creature activists. worry over the government assistance of creatures used in research facility practice has prompted laws and guidelines administering the utilization of creatures to guarantee others conscious treatment. As indicated by associations, for example, PETA, (People for the Ethical Treatment of Animals), creatures have the privilege not to be dealt with uncaringly or tormented to profit humanity. Creature experimentation ought to be utilized to progress science just when the creature isn't phsically hurt of made to endure unnecessarily. The ...
Friday, August 21, 2020
Urban Heat Islands For over 100 years, it has been realized that two contiguous urban communities are for the most part hotter than the encompassing territories. This area of city warmth, known as a urban warmth island, can impact the convergence of air contamination. The urban warmth island is framed when modern and urban zones are created and heat turns out to be increasingly copious. In provincial zones, an enormous piece of the approaching sun based vitality is utilized to dissipate water from vegetation and soil. In urban areas, where less vegetation and uncovered soil exists, most of the sun's vitality is consumed by urban structures and black-top. Consequently, during warm light hours, less evaporative cooling in urban areas permits surface temperatures to ascend higher than in country regions. Extra city heat is emitted by vehicles and manufacturing plants, just as by mechanical and residential warming and cooling units. Around evening time, the sun powered vitality, which is put away as huge amounts of warmth in city structures and streets, is discharged gradually into the city. The dispersal of warmth vitality is eased back and even halted by the tall structure dividers that don't permit infrared radiation to escape as promptly as do the relative level surfaces of the encompassing open country. The moderate arrival of warmth will in general keep city temperatures higher than those of the unpaved quicker cooling territories. On clear, still evenings when the warmth island is articulated, a little warm low- pressure territory frames over the city. Some of the time a light breeze, called a nation breeze which blows from the wide open into the city. On the off chance that there are major modern territories along the city's edges, poisons are conveyed into the heart of town, where they will in general concentrate. Around evening time, the additional glow of the city periodically creates a shallow insecure layer close to the surface. Contaminations radiated from low-level sources, for example, home warming units, will in general pack in this shallow layer, regularly making the air unfortunate to relax. The consistent overflowing of poisons into the earth may really impact the atmosphere of a city. For a model, certain poisons reflect sun powered vitality, in this way diminishing the daylight that arrives at the surface. A few particles fill in as cores whereupon water and ice structure. Water fume consolidates onto these particles, shaping murkiness that incredibly decreases perceivability. In addition, the additional cores builds the recurrence of city haze. Toxins from urban territories may even influence the climate downwind from them. Simply such a circumstance is depicted in a disputable report directed at La Porte, Indiana, a city situated around thirty miles downwind of the ventures of
Thursday, June 11, 2020
Liebeck V. McDonalds: An Annoyance The McDonaldÃ ¢Ã¢â ¬Ã¢â ¢s hot coffee case is an event that most Americans claim to know about but many actually are unware of the facts. When I first heard about this lawsuit, I was working in a restaurant that ironically served a lot of coffee. I was eavesdropping on the server line and overheard a fellow employeeÃ ¢Ã¢â ¬Ã¢â ¢s comment, Ã ¢Ã¢â ¬Ã âdid you hear about the lady who sued McDonaldÃ ¢Ã¢â ¬Ã¢â ¢s because she spilt coffee on herself, apparently she won a bunch of money; I wish I could just go around suing people because IÃ ¢Ã¢â ¬Ã¢â ¢m stupid.Ã ¢Ã¢â ¬Ã Fortunately, for me, I didnÃ ¢Ã¢â ¬Ã¢â ¢t care at the time to hear much of their story, nor did I care about the story at all. As the years went by, I didnÃ ¢Ã¢â ¬Ã¢â ¢t hear much about it anymore until I stumbled across a documentary called Ã ¢Ã¢â ¬Ã âHot CoffeeÃ ¢Ã¢â ¬Ã on Netflix. It was the first lawsuit mentioned in thi s documentary along with a few others that pointed out the downside of tort reform. The McDonaldÃ ¢Ã¢â ¬Ã¢â ¢s case, as I soon learned was nothing as my co-workers had mentioned, but of course, this was years ago. I was certain that by 2014, surely the facts of the McDonaldÃ ¢Ã¢â ¬Ã¢â ¢s hot coffee case had been distributed and everyone knew it was indeed not a frivolous lawsuit. I was proven quite wrong when just last week, a co-worker of mine was rattling on about her idea of Ã ¢Ã¢â ¬Ã âstupidÃ ¢Ã¢â ¬Ã lawsuits and she mentioned Ã ¢Ã¢â ¬Ã âwell I suppose you can sue anybody these days, I mean you can even sue McDonalds over hot coffee!Ã ¢Ã¢â ¬Ã Upon that note, I had no choice but to inform her that the McDonaldÃ ¢Ã¢â ¬Ã¢â ¢s case was indeed a legitimate suit. She preceded to say, Ã ¢Ã¢â ¬Ã âCoffee is supposed to be hot, so what then, can you sue for cold coffee?Ã ¢Ã¢â ¬Ã Technically, she wasnÃ ¢Ã¢â ¬Ã¢â ¢t wrong, coffee is su pposed to hot, but then again, coffee isnÃ ¢Ã¢â ¬Ã¢â ¢t supposed to cause third degree burns either, or hospitalize you for eight days. My annoyance a little pushed responded to my co-worker, Ã ¢Ã¢â ¬Ã âI donÃ ¢Ã¢â ¬Ã¢â ¢t see why not, I suppose if cold coffee was to cause you serious physical injury, then why not!Ã ¢Ã¢â ¬Ã Moving on, as I proceeded my research I learned more shocking facts of this world wide known lawsuit, as well as how it became so distorted. It all started in Albuquerque, New Mexico on Feb 27th, 1992 when 79 year old Grandma Liebeck ordered a .49 cent cup of coffee from a McDonaldÃ ¢Ã¢â ¬Ã¢â ¢s drive through. Little did she know that this .49 cent cup of coffee would end up costing her $11,000. She was sitting in the passengers seat when her grandson, Chris, parked the car in the McDonaldÃ ¢Ã¢â ¬Ã¢â ¢s parking lot so she could add sugar and cream to her coffee. She placed the cup between her knees and began pulling the lid towar ds her to remove it. In the process of doing so, she spilled the entire cup on her lap. She was wearing cotton sweatpants which is a fabric prone to absorb great amount of liquid quickly; in LiebeckÃ ¢Ã¢â ¬Ã¢â ¢s very unlucky situation, it was scalding coffee. She sat in the hot liquid for over 90 seconds, burning her thighs, buttocks, and groin. Her grandson immediately drove her to the hospital where it was then discovered that she had obtained third-degree burns on six percent of her skin. She was hospitalized for eight days, underwent skin grafting, and later debridement treatments (Cain). During this time, she also lost a lot of weight bringing her down to a very scary 83 pounds. In addition to her treatments at the hospital, she faced two more years of medical treatment (Cain). LiebeckÃ ¢Ã¢â ¬Ã¢â ¢s hospital bills became more than a little difficult to handle and thatÃ ¢Ã¢â ¬Ã¢â ¢s when she wrote a letter asking McDonalds to cover her out-of-pocket expenses, which amounted to $11,000. This included her daughters lost wages for the time she took off work to care for Liebeck during her three week recovery at home. McDonaldÃ ¢Ã¢â ¬Ã¢â ¢s responded with a refusal. It was during this time that Liebeck felt no choice but to seek out Reed Morgan, a Texas attorney. He had dealt with another McDonalds case concerning a burn victim as well (Levenson). That particular case in 1986 involved a woman who received third degree burns from purchasing McDonaldÃ ¢Ã¢â ¬Ã¢â ¢s coffee, which resorted in a settlement of $27,000. McDonaldÃ ¢Ã¢â ¬Ã¢â ¢s had stated during that case that they had no plans to turn down the heat. Before a suit was even filed, Liebeck once again asked McDonalds to pay for her medical expenses, now including her pain and suffering in the amount of $90,000. McDonalds offered only $800. Finally, in 1993, a products liability lawsuit was filed in New Mexico District Court stating that McDonalds was responsible of gross ne gligence for selling coffee that was unreasonably dangerous and Ã ¢Ã¢â ¬Ã âdefectively manufactured.Ã ¢Ã¢â ¬Ã Punitive damages were also sought based on the allegations that McDonalds acted with Ã ¢Ã¢â ¬Ã âconscience indifference for the safety of its customersÃ ¢Ã¢â ¬Ã (Levenson). During the pretrial, in January 21, 1994 McDonalds moved for summary judgment, but the motion was denied. On July 29th, a hearing was conducted on LiebeckÃ ¢Ã¢â ¬Ã¢â ¢s Motion for Partial Summary Judgment. The Parties agreed that the burns were indeed caused by the coffee. On July 29th in a letter decision, Judge Scott denied LiebeckÃ ¢Ã¢â ¬Ã¢â ¢s motion as to liability (Dedman). Morgan, LiebeckÃ ¢Ã¢â ¬Ã¢â ¢s attorney, along with the suggestion of a mediator, offered to settle for $225,000, but McDonaldÃ ¢Ã¢â ¬Ã¢â ¢s refused and ultimately decided to go to trial (Ruschmann). The trial took place on August 17th 1994 before Judge Robert H. Scott. Liebecks atto rneys argued that McDonalds coffee was defective in a sense that it was too hot and probable to cause more serious injury than any other coffee sold at different restaurants. They also discovered that McDonalds training manual required their coffee to be brewed at 195 to 205 degrees Fahrenheit and then held and served at 180-190 degree Fahrenheit. They debated that coffee should not be served hotter than 140 degrees (Ruschmann). Baxter, an expert in thermodynamics as applied to skin burns, stated that liquids at 190 degrees can cause third degree burns to the skin in two to three seconds, if at 180 degrees it can cause the same burns in 12 to 15 seconds, and at 160 degrees it can cause burns within 20 seconds (Cain). Their intentions were to prove that if McDonaldÃ ¢Ã¢â ¬Ã¢â ¢s coffee had been just a little less scalding, it would had added critical seconds to Liebecks response time. This would have allowed her to get out the car and remove her clothes within time to prevent se rious burns (Cain). Unfortunately, in Liebecks situation, it was estimated that she only had about 2 to 3 seconds before third degree burns began setting. A project performed by a law student working for Liebecks lawyers took temperatures of coffee at other local restaurants and found that McDonalds coffee was at least 20 degrees warmer (Ruschmann). Witnesses testified that between 1982 and 1992, McDonalds had received at least 700 reports of customers being burned by hot coffee; some incidents involving third degree burns (Cain). McDonalds had been sued countless times over coffee burns and had spent over $500,000 in settling these cases, including the 1986 case that Morgan himself was part of. He indeed questioned McDonaldÃ ¢Ã¢â ¬Ã¢â ¢s as to why they have not considered lowing their coffee temperature. McDonalds fought back with their own experts. They argued that coffee served at 130 degrees could cause third degree burns as well, therefore serving coffee at 180 or 190 d egrees was irrelevant. Also, a safety consultant hired by the company testified that hot coffee burns were statistically insignificant and that 700 burn complaints out of 24million cups over 10 years was a good report (Levenson). A McDonaldÃ ¢Ã¢â ¬Ã¢â ¢s executive admitted that the company choose not to warn its customers of the possible burns because there were more serious dangers in the restaurants. In addition, they admitted that their coffee was not fit for consumption because it would cause injuries to the mouth and throat if drunk at a temperature of 185 degrees. They added that due to Liebecks age, the burns were worse than usual because older skin is more vulnerable to serious injuries (Cain). During McDonalds closing argument, they pointed the blame on Liebeck for thoughtlessly placing the cup of obviously hot coffee between her legs and not removing her clothes quick enough. These statements offended jurors, one even saying, There was a person behind every number and I donÃ ¢Ã¢â ¬Ã¢â ¢t think the corporation was attaching enough importance to that (qtd. Ruschmann). They were also not convinced by McDonalds failed attempt at warning customers with a caution: contents Hot! label on the cup (Levenson). At the beginning of the trial, Jerry Goens wondered why he was deciding a hot coffee-spill case; after seeing all the evidence, he quickly changed his mind. In the end, the jurors who initially felt insulted and inconvenienced by Liebecks frivolous lawsuit were now more upset at McDonaldÃ ¢Ã¢â ¬Ã¢â ¢s unsympathetic attitude toward victims (Levenson). One Juror even pushing for damages totaling almost $10,000 (Levenson). Even the trial judge had no problems with the jurys verdict. After 7 days of trial, the jury would have to decide if McDonaldÃ ¢Ã¢â ¬Ã¢â ¢s would be held liable, thus restricting people from what they really want, good hot coffee (Levenson). The jury unanimously found McDonaldÃ ¢Ã¢â ¬Ã¢â ¢s liable. They side d with Liebeck on her claims Ã ¢Ã¢â ¬Ã âof product defect, breach of implied warranty, and breach of the implied warranty of fitness for a particular purposeÃ ¢Ã¢â ¬Ã (Dedman). The jury awarded $200,000 in compensatory damages, but because they also found her 20% at fault for her own injuries, her award was reduced to $160,000 (Ruschmann). The Jury awarded 2.7 million in punitive damages (two days worth of worldwide coffee sales), in which the Judge later reduced to $480,000. Judge Scott commented that the amount was justified due to willful, wanton, reckless, and what the courts find were callous conduct on McDonalds part (Ruschmann). LiebeckÃ ¢Ã¢â ¬Ã¢â ¢s total award was $640,000. McDonalds responded We knew the initial damages awarded were excessive and unjustified, and yesterday the Judge acknowledged that and agreed, but we feel they are excessive and we will appeal the decision (Dedman). Judge Scott denied McDonalds motion for new trial on September 16, 1994 and ordered the parties to a post-verdict settlement conference. On November 28th, the parties finally ended up settling for a confidential amount. Those knowledgeable of the amount Liebeck received, agreed that the amount was far less than what the jury had awarded her. McDonaldÃ ¢Ã¢â ¬Ã¢â ¢s had made some changes since Liebecks lawsuit by adding the warning sign Coffee, tea, and hot chocolate are VERY HOT! on their drive through windows. Their hot beverage lids are also now label with the words HOT! HOT! HOT! (Cain). Myself, as a very admin coffee drinker, stop by McDonalds frequently for coffee has also noticed that McDonalds employee will most instantly and pushily ask if I need cream and sugar in my coffee. If I do, they will then proceed to do it for me. Now whether or not they do it because its part of their role in providing great customer service, IÃ ¢Ã¢â ¬Ã¢â ¢m almost certain that some of it has to do with avoiding another hot coffee lawsuit. So how exact ly did this case get so misleading? Well, as a legal doctrine, the case of Liebeck v. McDonalds Restaurants has no precedential value. It was a single jurys verdict that never made it to the appellate level (Levenson). The facts were not properly distributed and citizens just choose to hear what they wanted. The media too had a great role in distorting this story. At first leaving out a few facts, and then soon only leaving three facts such as, Ã ¢Ã¢â ¬Ã âWoman spills coffee on herself, Woman sues McDonalds, and Woman wins 2.7 million dollars.Ã ¢Ã¢â ¬Ã In addition, huge corporations conduct large public relations campaigns to distort the truth in an attempt to limit peoples knowledge of the court system. They turned this particular case into a Ã ¢Ã¢â ¬Ã âwitch huntÃ ¢Ã¢â ¬Ã for tort reform, confusing the media and the general public into thinking Liebeck was the bad guy in this story (Hot Coffee Case). With the public assuming the truth lies within these big co rporations, they tend to agree with them, lacking the knowledge that a tort reform will actually make it more difficult for them to file a lawsuit, obtain a jury trial, and places a cap on their damages, if and when they are injured by these companies (Lane). In addition to the Liebeck vs McDonaldÃ ¢Ã¢â ¬Ã¢â ¢s Restaurant case, there are other cases across the United States that involve injuries from hot coffee. YouÃ ¢Ã¢â ¬Ã¢â ¢d also be interested to hear that most of them end with the burn victim at a lost. An example is the case of Steven Olliver vs Heavenly Bagels, Inc. from the Supreme Court of New York in 2001. Having similar circumstances as the McDonaldÃ ¢Ã¢â ¬Ã¢â ¢s case, Olliver purchased his cup of coffee from Heavenly Bagels and accidently spills it on himself while driving in his car. The coffee was actually put in a bag in which he had placed between his legs. He suffered second degree burns and sued the company. Heavenly Bagels argued that there was no defect in the manufacture or maintence of their coffee machine, and that they had no duty to warn the customer of the dangers of hot coffee. A service document showed that the brewing temperature was 194 degrees, but Ã ¢Ã¢â ¬Ã âindustry standards required a brewing temperature of 200 degreesÃ ¢Ã¢â ¬Ã . Under New York precedent, the fact that Ã ¢Ã¢â ¬Ã âthe coffee was hot enough to cause injury if not properly handled did not mean that it was defective or negligently servedÃ ¢Ã¢â ¬Ã . Coffee, a Ã ¢Ã¢â ¬Ã âproduct by its very nature had a dangerous attribute and liability was imposed only when the product had an attribute not reasonably contemplated by the purchaser or was unreasonably dangerous for its intended purposeÃ ¢Ã¢â ¬Ã (Olliver v. Heavenly Bagels). The court held that Olliver failed to provide evidence for which the jury could distinguish the coffee to be unreasonably hot, essentially, his second degree burns were not sufficient. Another example of a hot coffee case is Christopher Nadel vs Burger King. This case made it to the Court of Appeals of Ohio in 1997. Nadel and his family stopped by the Burger King drive through and order some food along with two cups of coffee. Initially there was an accident and the hot coffee spilt all over everyone sitting in the vehicle including NadelÃ ¢Ã¢â ¬Ã¢â ¢s young son. They filed an action in Ã ¢Ã¢â ¬Ã âbreach of warranty, products liability, and negligenceÃ ¢Ã¢â ¬Ã against the franchisor and franchisee of Burger King. The court granted the motions of both defendants for summary, which after the Nadels appealed. The court affirmed the grant of summary judgment to Burger King for of Ã ¢Ã¢â ¬Ã âbreach of warranty, premises liability, and negligent infliction of emotional distressÃ ¢Ã¢â ¬Ã . But, Summary judgment was reversed as to the Ã ¢Ã¢â ¬Ã âproducts liability and punitive damage claimsÃ ¢Ã¢â ¬Ã because of fact issues as to whether thecoff eethat burned NadelÃ ¢Ã¢â ¬Ã¢â ¢s son was defective. The court held that it was up to a jury to decide whether second degree burns resulting from spilled coffee was an unforeseen danger or common knowledge. The court also decided that a jury would be better able to determine whether the 175 degree coffee purchased from Burger King was hotter than what Nadels would have expected, and whether the risks of this hot coffee outweighed its benefits. Here we have three different hot coffee cases with all different decisions. LiebeckÃ ¢Ã¢â ¬Ã¢â ¢s case did not make it to an appellate level but the decisions of appellate courts across the country suggest that Stella Liebeck would have likely lost if the appeal had gone forward as these last two case proved. As of 2014 ho Works Cited Cain, Kevin G. And Now the Rest of the StoryThe McDonalds Coffee Lawsuit.Journal of Consumer Commercial LawJuly (2007): 14-19. Web. Christopher Nadel, by and through his next friend, Brenda Nadel, his natural mother, Evelyn Nadel, and Paul Nadel v. Burger King Corporation and Emil, Inc. Court of Appeals of Ohio. 21 May 1997.LexisNexis Academic. Web. 4 Dec. 2014. Dedman, Jim. The Stella Liebeck McDonalds Hot Coffee Case FAQ. AbnormalUse.com. Gallivan, White Boyd, P.A. Attorneys at Law. 25 January 2011. Web. 4 Dec. 2014. Lane, Justinian. What Is Tort Reform, Anyway? A Guide for the Average Citizen. WhatisTortReform.com. N.d. Web. 4 Dec. 2014. Levenson, Barry M.Habeas Codfish: Reflections on Food and the Law. Madison: U of Wisconsin, 2001. Print. N.a. Hot Coffee Case.ForThePeople.com. Morgan Morgan, 11 July 2012. Web. 4 Dec. 2014. Olliver v. Heavenly Bagels, Inc. Et Al. Supreme Court of New York Nassau County. 26 July 2001.LexisNexis Academic. Web. 4 Dec. 2014. Rami, Zachary. Courts Split as to Whether Consumers Injure by Hot Coffee Can Seek Recovery.Loyola Consumer Law Review6th ser. 10.4 (1999): n. pag. Web. Ruschmann, Paul.Tort Reform. Philadelp hia: Chelsea House, 2006. Print.
Sunday, May 17, 2020
Definitions Domestic Violence Defined Citation: ARS: 13-3601 Domestic violence includes: Ãâ¢ Any act that is a dangerous crime against children Ãâ¢ Endangerment Ãâ¢ Threatening or intimidating act Ãâ¢ Assault Ãâ¢ Custodial interference Ãâ¢ Unlawful imprisonment or kidnaping Ãâ¢ Criminal trespass Ãâ¢ Harassment or stalking Ãâ¢ Child or vulnerable adult abuse Persons Included in Definition: Ãâ¢ A spouse or former spouse Ãâ¢ Persons residing or having resided in the same household Ãâ¢ Persons having a child in common Ãâ¢ A party who is pregnant by the other party Ãâ¢ A parent, grandparent, grandchild, stepchild, brother, or sister Ãâ¢ A child who resides or has resided in the same household Defining Domestic Violence Domestic violence can beÃ¢â¬ ¦show more contentÃ¢â¬ ¦In addition, because violence is a learned behavior, growing up in a violent home can contribute to someone potentially becoming abusive. Of all batterers, two-thirds witnessed domestic violence while growing up. ( Government and academic studies consistently demonstrate that the majority of victims of domestic violence are females and that batterers are overwhelmingly male.) However, many males who witnessed violence in their childhood homes have gone on to have healthy family relationships. The same is true for girls who have grown up in a violent home. Although some do become victims of abuse, others develop healthy interpersonal relationships. It is still unclear why some people are able to develop healthy relationships while others continue to repeat the cycle of violence. Children of Domestic Violence Statistics Ãâ¢ For every hour, as many as 115 children are abused Ãâ¢ 90% of children from violent homes witness their fathers beating their mothers Ãâ¢ 63% of all boys, age 11-20, who commit murder, kill the man who was abusing their mother Ãâ¢ Children in homes where violence occurs are physically abused or neglected at a rate 1500% higher than the national average Ãâ¢ Research has shown that the more severe the abuse of the mother, the worse the child is abused Ãâ¢ Nationally, 75% ofShow MoreRelatedDomestic Violence And Children On Children1642 Words Ã |Ã 7 PagesDomestic Violence and Children There are many studies that have been done over the past decade that does a comparison of children of domestic violence to those that have not experienced it. We cannot say for sure what number or percentage is affected each day or year. However, it is a widespread national problem that affects children today. Domestic violence has long been a hot topic and statics shows thatÃ¢â¬ every 15 seconds a woman in the United States of America is beatenÃ¢â¬ (Beller 2015, p. 207)Read MoreThe Effects Of Domestic Violence On Children And Children1541 Words Ã |Ã 7 Pagesbattered woman, the house accommodate their client for 30days while they find other resources to help them move on with their life. Domestic abused affect women and children. Lots of women are more at risk in their own home. Spouse abuses happen when one person in the marriage chooses to control the other party by using fair intimidation physical, emotional abuse. Domestic violence displaced many families because they are trying to get away from their abuser. Abuse can range from physical, mentally, emotionalRead MoreThe Effects of Domestic Violence on Children1529 Words Ã |Ã 7 PagesThe Effects of Domestic Violence on Children Trudy Root Kaplan University CM107-11 Children are negatively impacted by the surrounding of domestic violence in multiple ways, in which need to be identified. The audience that needs to be aware of domestic abuseÃ¢â¬â¢s effects on children is adults that care for children; such as pediatricians, teachers, counselors, and parents. The issue that needs to be addressed is the negative effects on children involved in a domestic violence situation. ManyRead MoreThe Effects Of Domestic Violence On Children1387 Words Ã |Ã 6 Pages Literature Review: The Effects of Domestic Violence on Children By Taralyn Dean SW 8570 March 11, 2015 Introduction Today this paper will be exploring the affects of intimate partner domestic violence and how this impacts the children. The children of theses situations are the bystanders of these physical and emotional events. This paper will review in depth what other professionals are saying about the children of the domestic violence relationships and also the findings andRead MoreThe Effects Of Domestic Violence On Children1423 Words Ã |Ã 6 Pages All individuals who work at a center involved with domestic violence should hear my concern about how late elementary to late high school students lack the knowledge about domestic violence. Many individuals are not aware about who is being domestically violated in their communities. We should have a program that shows ways to cope, tell, and prevent domestic violence. This would educate students about what is considered as domestic violence. The students deserve to be herd; this program willRead MoreDomestic Violence And Its Effects On Children1694 Words Ã |Ã 7 PagesDomestic violence involves and affects all the family women in general including pregnant women, men, children, including children with special needs, adolescents, teenagers, and even the animals are abused by humans. There is no way to stop or control domestic violence. It involves physical abuse by both men and women, hitting with objects and even when you push someone is an act of violence or abuse, when you hit your child is an act of abuse. The most affected in the family are the children becauseRead MoreThe Effects Of Domestic Violence On Children And Children852 Words Ã |Ã 4 Pagesthey can call home for as long as needed. We at Stop the Violence You Are Not Alone-CCMG want to raise awareness about Domestic Violence. Furthermore, we want to help women and children across the Chicago area with a goal of expanding nationwide.(lets start nationwid eÃ¢â¬ ¦) As a Domestic Violence survivor, I want to create an atmosphere where women and children feel safe. Many women donÃ¢â¬â¢t realize the danger that they are in. Domestic Violence is the control of one partner over another inRead MoreThe Effects Of Domestic Violence On Children Essay1383 Words Ã |Ã 6 PagesIn a similar study by Ybarra, Wilkens, Lieberman (2007) the goal was to determine if domestic violence leads to functioning shortfalls, and what its effects it has on a childÃ¢â¬â¢s behavioral and cognitive functioning. In homes where domestic violence happens, young children are more likely to witness violence than older children. It was hypothesized that children who witnessed violence at home had lower verbal capabilities, and would display greater internalizing and externalizing behaviors. ParticipantsRead MoreThe Effects Of Domestic Violence On Children1444 Words Ã |Ã 6 PagesWhen it comes to domestic abuse there are signs to watch for and if caught early enough one can stop it before it begins. In violent relationships the ultimate goal of the abuser is to have complete control over the abused. According to Shattered Lives magazine, Ã¢â¬Å"One out of every four households experience a form of domestic violenceÃ¢â¬ (1). When one feels they have nowhere to go they become more attached and often have children with their perpetrator. The children also play a part in the family membersRead MoreThe Effects Of Domestic Violence On Children963 Words Ã |Ã 4 PagesEffects of Domestic Violence on Children Many children witness domestic violence each day. Most times, children witness their mothers being abuse by their fathers, step-fathers, or motherÃ¢â¬â¢s boyfriends. According to Couchenour and Chrisman (2011), Ã¢â¬Å"Women and children are at greater risk of being victims of abuse than are menÃ¢â¬ (p. 131). Witnessing violence or being abused at home has serious effects on children. This article explains the short-term and long-term effects that domestic violence has on children
Wednesday, May 6, 2020
Education is a quality in which all learning should be given under unconditional pretenses. The opportunity to be privileged with higher learning and creative diversities places an extraordinary value in which all children should achieve. However, when economic and ethnic demographics supersedes integrity, equality, fairness, and entailing security for all students. The modern issues of the urban education confronts our society with alarming facts that students are failing not only under the umbrella of the schools but it stunts their ability to see themselves successful in their future. Varying economic statuses can significantly impact the dynamic between students and teachers, and may detract from the learning environment. Economic status affects how students interact with one another, learn concepts, develop intellectually and relate to authority figures of urban educations. Many economic factors converge to create this vicious cycle of urban educational decline, and the downward spiral of solutions due to the lack of funding. Urban schools are at an extreme disadvantage, especially to the children that are attending these schools. Inequalities in education exist from the textbooks provided to the teacher qualifications which in turn affects the quality of education that inner-city children are receiving. Neighborhoods are being segregated by social class and the impoverished population is not getting the same educational opportunities as the suburbanShow MoreRelatedEducation And Skills Development : A Flagship Programme For Rural Poverty Alleviation1262 Words Ã |Ã 6 PagesEducation and Skills Development: A Flagship programme for Rural Poverty Alleviation More than of half of the worldÃ¢â¬â¢s population and nearly 70 per cent of the worldÃ¢â¬â¢s poor made rural areas their home where hunger, illiteracy and low school achievement are ubiquitous. India lives in its villages where 68.84% of the countryÃ¢â¬â¢s population eke out their living through agriculture and allied activities. For the economic development of our country, the development of rural areas and the standard of livingRead MoreWhat I Know Now 2812 Words Ã |Ã 4 Pages 2 Urban education takes place in context of large cities. On an average of 64 percent of students receive free or reduced priced lunches, which indicates that their families are at or near the federal poverty level (Hudley, 2013). Which means there is a greater percentage of students who are considered low-income and there are factors that impact their education in a negative manner and examples of such factors will be later revealed in this paper. My goal is to become an effective urban teacherRead MoreEffects of Rural-to-Urban Migration on Childrens Wellbeing in China Hongwei Xu University1722 Words Ã |Ã 7 Pages3) There is need to involvement of current and future education training for rural development. 5) The Causal Effects of Rural-to-Urban Migration on ChildrenÃ¢â¬â¢s Wellbeing in China Hongwei Xu University of Michigan Yu Xie University of Michigan Population Studies Center Research Report 13-798 August 2013 Findings : 1) Because of migration from Rural to Urban the nutritional requirement are full filled. 2) Because of migration from Rural to urban there is remarkable academic achievements are seen. 3)Read MoreHigh School Education And Rural Areas1172 Words Ã |Ã 5 PagesEducation is very popular and important issue in our country, especially in some rural areas, for example: Ningxia, Guangxi and etc. in china. Rural areas mean countryside or the located is outside city. Urban areas have located the center of the city, for example: Shanghai, Beijing and etc. if we want to good at high school education, we should more focus in rural areas. Until now, we still have lots of children are staying at rural areas. High school education in rural areas are important in chinaRead MoreAnalysis Of Gish Jen s Who s Irish?893 Words Ã |Ã 4 Pagesfocused on inequality in education in China. Not many women were fierce and independent women who could make a life of their own, which then brought up the question, has gender inequality changed in Chinese culture? Or to narrow it down some more how has gender inequality in education changed in Chinese culture? Though slowly gender inequality h as been changing in education in Chinese culture and all of this is shown through research looking at, economic growth, rural and urban areas, and the one childRead MoreAchieving Gender Equality : Education1520 Words Ã |Ã 7 PagesAchieving Gender Equality: Education in China In Gish JenÃ¢â¬â¢s short story Who s Irish?, the main character is a determined Chinese grandmother who moved to America with her husband when she was a young woman, and now, in her old age, she is nearing her limit when she cannot handle her granddaughter s behavior and how she is being raised. The story was written in 1956 and while reading it a question of interest grew in knowing about gender inequality in China and if it has changed in the last severalRead MoreEssay on Urban bias as a major impediment to rural development1594 Words Ã |Ã 7 PagesÃ¯ » ¿Urban bias has been presented as a major impediment to rural development because it perpetrates discriminatory policies which create and perpetuate disparities between urban and rural areas and consequently the development of urban areas at the expense of rural areas. This paper examines how urban bias, to a large extent, is the major impediment to rural development owing to its skewed policies and to down development approache s. Urban bias proponents, chief among them Lipton (1977), argue thatRead MoreIndustrial Areas From Centralization And Neoliberal Globalisation1684 Words Ã |Ã 7 PagesworldÃ¢â¬â¢s population currently live in urban areas. Urbanization combined with the overall growth of the worldÃ¢â¬â¢s population could add another 2.5 billion people to urban populations by 2050, with close to 90 percent of the increase concentrated in Asia and Africa. This significant change of urbanization will lead to challenges in satisfying the needs for housing, infrastructure, transportation, energy supply and employment, as well as for basic services such as education and health care . This report willRead MoreThe Effect of Rural-Urban Migration in South Africa Essay1682 Words Ã |Ã 7 Pagesrural-urban migration on the four districts of the North West province in South Africa using Manova technique. INTRODUCTION This proposal is about the effect of rural-urban migration on the four districts of the North West province in South Africa. It entails the background of rural-urban migration as well as the statement of the problem, main objectives, other specific objectives, rationale, hypotheses, identification of variables, the theories of other people concerning the rural-urban migrationRead MoreInterview Paper : Urban Conflict And Peacebuilding1117 Words Ã |Ã 5 PagesBriefing paper: Urban Conflict and Peacebuilding Over the Global South, urban areas are developing at a remarkable pace. Vast parts of these urban centres are situated in fragile states emerging out of conflicts. Thus, it is of critical significance to understand the particulars of violent cities and what strategies is viable in avoiding conflicts and making peace in urban space. Introduction Urban centres are presently developing at a remarkable rate across the developing countries. Individuals
Question: Discuss about theCustomer Relationship Managementfor Business Organisation. Answer: Introduction: Customer Relationship Management System is a tool that describes the link the business has with its customers. It not only involves capturing all quantitative information relating to the customers of the business, but also capturing qualitative aspects of serving those customers. Thus, CRM system first aims to locate and gather the basic information of all the customers. Thereafter those information is used to fulfil the needs of the existing customers and attracting new ones in the process, thereby expanding the market of the business. Concept of CRM: Customer relationship management is a strategy, process and includes technology that business organisation uses to manage their customers and their interaction points. CRM can be perceived as tactics that convert existing customers into loyal customers by not only fulfilling their requirements but also considering their individual choice. It focuses on building customer trust which results in a strong and healthy customer relationship. (Ajmera et al., 2013). How CRM helps firms achieve customer intimacy: Now days, due to the rapid increase in globalisation and internet marketing and sales, the need of customers have become dynamic and uncertain. In such situation, it has become very essential for firms to understand how the need and preference of customers are changing with the options available to them in the market. CRM help firms in assessing such needs by constantly being in touch with them and offering the best possible deals that will enable them retain as their customer (Khodakarami and Chan, 2014). CRM uses the following tools/strategies that enable firms achieve customer intimacy: Developing quality in order to achieve customer satisfaction. Increase marketing strategies to convert regular customers into loyal customers thus improving the bottom line Providing constant help and support, both online and offline enabling in improving efficiency Create business plans that are based on the predictions and analysis of past service and sales trends. Creating central databases that is open for the whole organization to identify customer patterns (Pedronet al. 2016). Automation in sales by online means. Example- self order, e payment etc. Popular tools used under CRM system in organisations. Example- McDonald in the food and beverage industry is one of the example companies that has created huge database i.e. history of customers, their buying pattern, amount and quality of products, etc are maintained. McDonald has maintained customer interaction with the use of customer involvement points. Physical Deployment of Personnel: Under small scale businesses, where the market is located in a particular area most often, the best way to have customer intimacy is through one-to-one interaction. Volunteers and other personnel are deployed to gather information and maintain customer records physically/online, for catering to the needs of the customers ("Comparing CRM systems", 2015,). Web Based Technology based CRM softwares: Under large scale business organisations, the firms use several web based CRM softwares like CiviCRM, Salesforce, etc. to report its CRM activities. These software are mostly custom-made, based on the requirements of the business and act as data mining tools which help the business take accurate decisions on sales, marketing, changing business trends etc (Chien, 2015). Social Media tools like Facebook, Twitter, Linkedinetc. Most popular and easy accessible social media acts as both marketing and CRM tools for all business organisations. Open Platforms to receive customer feedbacks enables them to understand the customers well. CRM and Competitive Advantage: The main reason why CRM was introduced in the business strategies is to attain competitive advantage. As the old saying goes, Customer is the King. This approach makes sure that each customer feels having a centralized relationship with the organisation. A proper CRM gives the firm the chance to know, understand the customers. It helps in identifying their needs, queries and concerns (Chiang, 2012). Example- McDonald has developed marketing policy under which customers interaction is central point. McDonald has developed customer based information system under which customers loyalty points were traced, discounts offers are provided to customers. Advantages of operational CRM are as follows- Automation of sales promotion- It can be analysed that CRM is used attracts more customers by employing CRM strategies. It includes follow up with customers and converts sale lead into actual sale. Service automation- Under CRM system, customer history is maintained so that each and every aspect related to customer can be maintained. For example, maintaining database of customer can be easily reached and can be used in decision making process of business organisation. Case Study CRM by Dominos Pizza, India Dominos Pizza, one of the leading pizza suppliers in the world has used the following CRM practises that has enabled them gain their competitive advantage over others in the market. Operational Perspective: Special offers and regular offers round the clock for all customers Home delivery specialists with 30 min free delivery targets Dominos WOW Club Cost effective pizzas and weekend offers User friendly ordering cancellation process Healthy pizza and low fat and cheese pizzas Feel good ambience, special party and corporate spaces and order intakes Analytical Perspective of CRM Customer relationship management can also be seen as source of data collection or information gathering. As business operation of every business organisation requires decision making so as to solve issues. In order to make correct and intelligent decisions management or managers requires certain information (Tereso and Bernardino, 2011). On the basis of these information decisions can be taken by business organisation. Analytical customer relationship management uses many techniques like data collection, data mining, data storing and other statistical techniques so that data related to customers can be used indecision making process. Customers are lifeline of business entity that can make or break any move of business organisation. Therefore it can be analysed that customer relationship management system can be used for generating useful information for decision making process of business entity (Smith, 2016). For example- Maintaining history (sales, address, items purchased, saving credit card, etc) of customers can be used to make interaction point for customers and try to increase sales. Another example of analytical CRM is to save time of customers by using customer database. Conclusion: A good CRM accurately assesses the relationships with the customers and gives the organization a clear view of what the customers truly want from it. Today, every customer has endless brands to choose from. A business needs to do more than what precisely it is supposed to. This enables the business to make a lasting impression that is valued by the customer. CRM tools make this process easy by providing crisp information that the organization needs to understand and appeal customers. With technology, the number of options available to the company for data mining is unlimited. Information is available in seconds with single clicks. Adoption of detailed CRM Policy, allocating budgets for CRM activities, approving the same at the Board level and quarterly review will ensure every organisation to be in tune with their customer base. References "Comparing CRM systems", 2015, Investment News, vol. 19, no. 37. Ajmera, J., Ahn, H., Nagarajan, M., Verma, A., Contractor, D., Dill, S. Denesuk, M. 2013, "A CRM system for social media: challenges and experiences", ACM, , pp. 49. Chiang, W. 2012, "To establish online shoppers' markets and rules for dynamic CRM systems", Internet Research, vol. 22, no. 5, pp. 613-625. Chien, T.K., Ma, H.Y. Hou, K.L. 2015, "A Study for establishing ideal CRM system function structure", IEEE, , pp. 681. Khodakarami, F. Chan, Y.E. 2014, "Exploring the role of customer relationship management (CRM) systems in customer knowledge creation", Information Management, vol. 51, no. 1, pp. 27-42. Pedron, C.D., Picoto, W.N., Dhillon, G. Caldeira, M. 2016, "Value-focused objectives for CRM system adoption", Industrial Management Data Systems, vol. 116, no. 3, pp. 526-545. Smith, L. 2016, "5 reasons predictive analytics make or break a CRM System", Database and Network Journal, vol. 46, no. 1, pp. 17. Tereso, M. Bernardino, J. 2011, "Open Source CRM Systems for SMEs", International Journal of Managing Information Technology, vol. 3, no. 4, pp. 41-56.